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Reich was a TB-wide infectious disease that was widespread in Europe. Its most well-known form, however, is lung tuberculosis, but it is mycobacterium tuberculosis, but all organs can be affected.Tuberculosis in Hungary in the XX. It was also known as morbus Hungaricus, a disease known before the mid-twentieth century. Due to the introduction of protection, the organization of the nursing care network, the improvement of the social situation and the control of animal husbandry, there are no large-scale consequences.
In 2004, the WHO European Region reported a total of 414,163 TBC cases out of 51 in 52 countries, accounting for about 8% of WHO registered applicants. 70% of reported cases were from the Soviet Union (12 countries), 15% from the European Union and Western Europe (Member States of the European Union and Andorra, Iceland, Israel, Norway, San Marino, Sweden - 15%) from the Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia-Montenegro and Turkey).
In the favorable situation in Hungary, the incidence of TB in the 90s increased, and the number of TBC cases increased (42 new cases in 1995). Following rigorous law enforcement measures, patient records and reorganization have allowed us to re-enter successful years: in 2004, the number of newly enrolled patients was 9.8% (compared to 100%). The downward trend is continuous, so we have started to look at countries with a "low-incidence" area. The domestic infant vaccination system requires increased monitoring of tuberculosis in children / adolescents, and stricter contact protection (patient contact), and the treatment of vulnerable and infected young people. Tuberculosis cases occurring in children (below 14 years of age) should be subjected to individual clinical evaluation.
BCG vaccination applied to TB prevention for over 80 years
Defective: BCGBCG vaccine has been used for 80 years to prevent tuberculosis. This is probably the most widely used vaccine in the world. It is estimated that since 1921, approximately 4 billion doses have been administered, and that around 100 million newborns receive BCG vaccine worldwide every year, primarily through the WHO Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI). In Hungary, the number of vaccinations and revaccinations carried out since the introduction of the mandatory BCG vaccine (1953) is around 13 million. The extremely favorable development of childhood tuberculosis, in addition to the reduction in the number of infectious tuberculosis patients, is primarily the result of a full-fledged BCG vaccination of newborns.
BCG vaccination develops after infection, ъ.n. pediatric "primary" tuberculosis and its early generalization (miliary tuberculosis, meningitis tuberculosis). BCG vaccination has no secondary effect, ie it does not interfere with ъ.n. adult type, "post-primary" tuberculosis (cavernous lobe tuberculosis).
The vaccine was named after Bacillus Calmette et Guerin shortening. Mycobacterium bovis BCG backtrium has been propagated (passed) over 13 years from one culture medium to the other. During the 13-year passage, it lost its bacterial germline properties, but retained its immune response (antigen) properties. BCG contains live attenuated (attenuated) bacteria. Your immune response differs from your usual vaccine immune response. T cells are required for the immunologic process, resulting in a type of allergic reaction, and an exfoliation, which results in the production of an antibody response in the peripheral lymphoid tissue.
Vaccination reaction, vaccination eventDuring the first days of life, a severely discolored nodule appears within weeks (months) following administration of a very small amount of vaccine (0.05 ml) given intracutaneously in the layers of the skin. As a result of the immunological reactions, a wound covered with sputum can be observed for weeks in the form of suppurated tissue. The varnish usually drops within 2-5 months and leaves a surface scar with a diameter of 2-10 mm. Always look for the vaccination site on the left upper arm! This standard vaccination reaction will be checked by your home doctor, and in the absence of a vaccination reaction, the vaccine will be repeated after 6 to 12 months.
If you have a larger swelling of the peas, you may also notice swelling of the lymph nodes under your armpit, suggesting that the vaccine was in deeper layers of the skin or that the amount injected was more than necessary. There is no need for special treatment for unintended reactions, and the maintenance and protection of sarcone from mechanical irritation (rubbing) is sufficient. Very rarely, wound healing is required due to the extreme swelling of the lymph nodes under the axilla. Frequently, the BCG reaction produces a bloody, lumpy, sometimes ulcerative discharge, which occurs in conjunction with the immunological reaction, eczema.
A soothing, hydrating cream can speed up the process. Any vaccine can be given at the same time as the BCG vaccine or at free intervals, but the left upper arm cannot be used for 3 months!
It is contraindicated
- Acute febrile illness
- Immunologic disorders (congenital, childbirth of an HIV-positive mother after chemotherapy, congenital immune deficiency, eg congenital immunodeficiency)